Package 'santoku'

Title: A Versatile Cutting Tool
Description: A tool for cutting data into intervals. Allows singleton intervals. Always includes the whole range of data by default. Flexible labelling. Convenience functions for cutting by quantiles etc. Handles dates, times, units and other vectors.
Authors: David Hugh-Jones [aut, cre], Daniel Possenriede [ctb]
Maintainer: David Hugh-Jones <[email protected]>
License: MIT + file LICENSE
Version: 1.0.0
Built: 2024-07-04 05:33:49 UTC
Source: https://github.com/hughjonesd/santoku

Help Index


A versatile cutting tool for R

Description

santoku is a tool for cutting data into intervals. It provides the function chop(), which is similar to base R's cut() or Hmisc::cut2(). chop(x, breaks) takes a vector x and returns a factor of the same length, coding which interval each element of x falls into.

Details

Here are some advantages of santoku:

  • By default, chop() always covers the whole range of the data, so you won't get unexpected NA values.

  • Unlike cut() or cut2(), chop() can handle single values as well as intervals. For example, chop(x, breaks = c(1, 2, 2, 3)) will create a separate factor level for values exactly equal to 2.

  • Flexible and easy labelling.

  • Convenience functions for creating quantile intervals, evenly-spaced intervals or equal-sized groups.

  • Convenience functions to quickly tabulate chopped data.

  • Can chop numbers, dates, date-times and other objects.

These advantages make santoku especially useful for exploratory analysis, where you may not know the range of your data in advance.

To get started, read the vignette:

vignette("santoku")

For more details, start with the documentation for chop().

Author(s)

Maintainer: David Hugh-Jones [email protected]

Other contributors:

See Also

Useful links:


Class representing a set of intervals

Description

Class representing a set of intervals

Usage

## S3 method for class 'breaks'
format(x, ...)

## S3 method for class 'breaks'
print(x, ...)

is.breaks(x, ...)

Arguments

x

A breaks object

...

Unused


Create a standard set of breaks

Description

Create a standard set of breaks

Usage

brk_default(breaks)

Arguments

breaks

A numeric vector.

Value

A function which returns an object of class breaks.

Examples

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8))
chop(1:10, brk_default(c(2, 5, 8)))

Create a breaks object manually

Description

Create a breaks object manually

Usage

brk_manual(breaks, left_vec)

Arguments

breaks

A vector, which must be sorted.

left_vec

A logical vector, the same length as breaks. Specifies whether each break is left-closed or right-closed.

Details

All breaks must be closed on exactly one side, like ⁠..., x) [x, ...⁠ (left-closed) or ⁠..., x) [x, ...⁠ (right-closed).

For example, if breaks = 1:3 and left = c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE), then the resulting intervals are

T        F       T
[ 1,  2 ] ( 2, 3 )

Singleton breaks are created by repeating a number in breaks. Singletons must be closed on both sides, so if there is a repeated number at indices i, i+1, left[i] must be TRUE and left[i+1] must be FALSE.

Value

A function which returns an object of class breaks.

Examples

lbrks <- brk_manual(1:3, rep(TRUE, 3))
chop(1:3, lbrks, extend = FALSE)

rbrks <- brk_manual(1:3, rep(FALSE, 3))
chop(1:3, rbrks, extend = FALSE)

brks_singleton <- brk_manual(
      c(1,    2,    2,     3),
      c(TRUE, TRUE, FALSE, TRUE))

chop(1:3, brks_singleton, extend = FALSE)

Equal-width intervals for dates or datetimes

Description

brk_width() can be used with time interval classes from base R or the lubridate package.

Usage

## S3 method for class 'Duration'
brk_width(width, start)

Arguments

width

A scalar difftime, Period or Duration object.

start

A scalar of class Date or POSIXct. Can be omitted.

Details

If width is a Period, lubridate::add_with_rollback() is used to calculate the widths. This can be useful for e.g. calendar months.

Examples

if (requireNamespace("lubridate")) {
  year2001 <- as.Date("2001-01-01") + 0:364
  tab_width(year2001, months(1),
        labels = lbl_discrete(" to ", fmt = "%e %b %y"))
}

Cut data into intervals

Description

chop() cuts x into intervals. It returns a factor of the same length as x, representing which interval contains each element of x. kiru() is an alias for chop. tab() calls chop() and returns a contingency table() from the result.

Usage

chop(
  x,
  breaks,
  labels = lbl_intervals(),
  extend = NULL,
  left = TRUE,
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = NULL,
  drop = TRUE
)

kiru(
  x,
  breaks,
  labels = lbl_intervals(),
  extend = NULL,
  left = TRUE,
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = NULL,
  drop = TRUE
)

tab(
  x,
  breaks,
  labels = lbl_intervals(),
  extend = NULL,
  left = TRUE,
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = NULL,
  drop = TRUE
)

Arguments

x

A vector.

breaks

A numeric vector of cut-points or a function to create cut-points from x.

labels

A character vector of labels or a function to create labels.

extend

Logical. If TRUE, always extend breaks to ⁠+/-Inf⁠. If NULL, extend breaks to min(x) and/or max(x) only if necessary. If NULL, never extend.

left

Logical. Left-closed or right-closed breaks?

close_end

Logical. Close last break at right? (If left is FALSE, close first break at left?)

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

drop

Logical. Drop unused levels from the result?

Details

x may be a numeric vector, or more generally, any vector which can be compared with < and == (see Ops). In particular Date and date-time objects are supported. Character vectors are supported with a warning.

Breaks

breaks may be a vector or a function.

If it is a vector, breaks gives the break endpoints. Repeated values create singleton intervals. For example breaks = c(1, 3, 3, 5) creates 3 intervals: [1, 3), {3} and (3, 5].

If breaks is a function, it is called with the x, extend, left and close_end arguments, and should return an object of class breaks. Use ⁠brk_*⁠ functions to create a variety of data-dependent breaks.

Names of breaks may be used for labels. See "Labels" below.

Options for breaks

By default, left-closed intervals are created. If left is FALSE, right-closed intervals are created.

If close_end is TRUE the final break (or first break if left is FALSE) will be closed at both ends. This guarantees that all values x with ⁠min(breaks) <= x <= max(breaks)⁠ are included in the intervals.

Before version 0.9.0, close_end was FALSE by default, and also behaved differently with respect to extended breaks: see "Extending intervals" below.

Using mathematical set notation:

  • If left is TRUE and close_end is TRUE, breaks will look like [b1, b2), [b2, b3) ... [b_n-1, b_n].

  • If left is FALSE and close_end is TRUE, breaks will look like [b1, b2], (b2, b3] ... (b_n-1, b_n].

  • If left is TRUE and close_end is FALSE, all breaks will look like ...[b1, b2) ....

  • If left is FALSE and close_end is FALSE, all breaks will look like ...(b1, b2] ....

Extending intervals

If extend is TRUE, intervals will be extended to [-Inf, min(breaks)) and (max(breaks), Inf].

If extend is NULL (the default), intervals will be extended to [min(x), min(breaks)) and (max(breaks), max(x)], only if necessary – i.e. if elements of x would be below or above the unextended breaks.

close_end is applied after breaks are extended, i.e. always to the very last or very first break. This is a change from previous behaviour. Up to version 0.8.0, close_end was applied to the user-specified intervals, then extend was applied. Note that if breaks are extended, then the extended break is always closed anyway.

Labels

labels may be a character vector. It should have the same length as the (possibly extended) number of intervals. Alternatively, labels may be a ⁠lbl_*⁠ function such as lbl_seq().

If breaks is a named vector, then non-zero-length names of breaks will be used as labels for the interval starting at the corresponding element. This overrides the labels argument (but unnamed breaks will still use labels). This feature is [Experimental].

If labels is NULL, then integer codes will be returned instead of a factor.

If raw is TRUE, labels will show the actual numbers calculated by breaks. If raw is FALSE then labels may show other objects, such as quantiles for chop_quantiles() and friends, proportions of the range for chop_proportions(), or standard deviations for chop_mean_sd().

If raw is NULL then ⁠lbl_*⁠ functions will use their default (usually FALSE). Otherwise, raw argument to chop() overrides raw arguments passed into ⁠lbl_*⁠ functions directly.

Miscellaneous

NA values in x, and values which are outside the extended endpoints, return NA.

kiru() is a synonym for chop(). If you load {tidyr}, you can use it to avoid confusion with tidyr::chop().

Note that chop(), like all of R, uses binary arithmetic. Thus, numbers may not be exactly equal to what you think they should be. There is an example below.

Value

chop() returns a factor of the same length as x, representing the intervals containing the value of x.

tab() returns a contingency table().

See Also

base::cut(), non-standard-types for chopping objects that aren't numbers.

Other chopping functions: chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 6))

chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 6), extend = FALSE)

# Repeat a number for a singleton break:
chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 4, 6))

chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 6), left = FALSE)

chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 6), close_end = FALSE)

chop(1:7, brk_quantiles(c(0.25, 0.75)))

# A single break is fine if `extend` is not `FALSE`:
chop(1:7, 4)

# Floating point inaccuracy:
chop(0.3/3, c(0, 0.1, 0.1, 1), labels = c("< 0.1", "0.1", "> 0.1"))

# -- Labels --

chop(1:7, c(Lowest = 1, Low = 2, Mid = 4, High = 6))

chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 6), labels = c("Lowest", "Low", "Mid", "High"))

chop(1:7, c(2, 4, 6), labels = lbl_dash())

# Mixing names and other labels:
chop(1:7, c("<2" = 1, 2, 4, ">=6" = 6), labels = lbl_dash())

# -- Non-standard types --

chop(as.Date("2001-01-01") + 1:7, as.Date("2001-01-04"))

suppressWarnings(chop(LETTERS[1:7], "D"))


tab(1:10, c(2, 5, 8))

Chop equal-sized groups

Description

chop_equally() chops x into groups with an equal number of elements.

Usage

chop_equally(
  x,
  groups,
  ...,
  labels = lbl_intervals(),
  left = is.numeric(x),
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = TRUE
)

brk_equally(groups)

tab_equally(x, groups, ..., left = is.numeric(x), raw = TRUE)

Arguments

x

A vector.

groups

Number of groups.

...

Passed to chop().

labels

A character vector of labels or a function to create labels.

left

Logical. Left-closed or right-closed breaks?

close_end

Logical. Close last break at right? (If left is FALSE, close first break at left?)

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

Details

chop_equally() uses brk_quantiles() under the hood. If x has duplicate elements, you may get fewer groups than requested. If so, a warning will be emitted. See the examples.

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop_equally(1:10, 5)

# You can't always guarantee `groups` groups:
dupes <- c(1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4)
quantile(dupes, 0:4/4)
chop_equally(dupes, 4)

Chop into equal-width intervals

Description

chop_evenly() chops x into intervals intervals of equal width.

Usage

chop_evenly(x, intervals, ..., close_end = TRUE)

brk_evenly(intervals)

tab_evenly(x, intervals, ...)

Arguments

x

A vector.

intervals

Integer: number of intervals to create.

...

Passed to chop().

close_end

Logical. Close last break at right? (If left is FALSE, close first break at left?)

Details

chop_evenly() sets close_end = TRUE by default.

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop_evenly(0:10, 5)

Chop using an existing function

Description

chop_fn() is a convenience wrapper: chop_fn(x, foo, ...) is the same as chop(x, foo(x, ...)).

Usage

chop_fn(
  x,
  fn,
  ...,
  extend = NULL,
  left = TRUE,
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = NULL,
  drop = TRUE
)

brk_fn(fn, ...)

tab_fn(
  x,
  fn,
  ...,
  extend = NULL,
  left = TRUE,
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = NULL,
  drop = TRUE
)

Arguments

x

A vector.

fn

A function which returns a numeric vector of breaks.

...

Further arguments to fn

extend

Logical. If TRUE, always extend breaks to ⁠+/-Inf⁠. If NULL, extend breaks to min(x) and/or max(x) only if necessary. If NULL, never extend.

left

Logical. Left-closed or right-closed breaks?

close_end

Logical. Close last break at right? (If left is FALSE, close first break at left?)

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

drop

Logical. Drop unused levels from the result?

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

if (requireNamespace("scales")) {
  chop_fn(rlnorm(10), scales::breaks_log(5))
  # same as
  # x <- rlnorm(10)
  # chop(x, scales::breaks_log(5)(x))
}

Chop by standard deviations

Description

Intervals are measured in standard deviations on either side of the mean.

Usage

chop_mean_sd(x, sds = 1:3, ..., raw = FALSE, sd = deprecated())

brk_mean_sd(sds = 1:3, sd = deprecated())

tab_mean_sd(x, sds = 1:3, ..., raw = FALSE)

Arguments

x

A vector.

sds

Positive numeric vector of standard deviations.

...

Passed to chop().

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

sd

[Deprecated]

Details

In version 0.7.0, these functions changed to specifying sds as a vector. To chop 1, 2 and 3 standard deviations around the mean, write chop_mean_sd(x, sds = 1:3) instead of chop_mean_sd(x, sd = 3).

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop_mean_sd(1:10)

chop(1:10, brk_mean_sd())

tab_mean_sd(1:10)

Chop into fixed-sized groups

Description

chop_n() creates intervals containing a fixed number of elements.

Usage

chop_n(x, n, ..., close_end = TRUE, tail = "split")

brk_n(n, tail = "split")

tab_n(x, n, ..., tail = "split")

Arguments

x

A vector.

n

Integer. Number of elements in each interval.

...

Passed to chop().

close_end

Logical. Close last break at right? (If left is FALSE, close first break at left?)

tail

String. What to do if the final interval has fewer than n elements? "split" to keep it separate. "merge" to merge it with the neighbouring interval.

Details

The algorithm guarantees that intervals contain no more than n elements, so long as there are no duplicates in x and tail = "split". It also guarantees that intervals contain no fewer than n elements, except possibly the last interval (or first interval if left is FALSE).

To ensure that all intervals contain at least n elements (so long as there are at least n elements in x!) set tail = "merge".

If tail = "split" and there are intervals containing duplicates with more than n elements, a warning is given.

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop_n(1:10, 5)

chop_n(1:5, 2)
chop_n(1:5, 2, tail = "merge")

# too many duplicates
x <- rep(1:2, each = 3)
chop_n(x, 2)

tab_n(1:10, 5)

# fewer elements in one group
tab_n(1:10, 4)

Chop using pretty breakpoints

Description

chop_pretty() uses base::pretty() to calculate breakpoints which are 1, 2 or 5 times a power of 10. These look nice in graphs.

Usage

chop_pretty(x, n = 5, ...)

brk_pretty(n = 5, ...)

tab_pretty(x, n = 5, ...)

Arguments

x

A vector.

n

Positive integer passed to base::pretty(). How many intervals to chop into?

...

Passed to chop() by chop_pretty() and tab_pretty(); passed to base::pretty() by brk_pretty().

Details

base::pretty() tries to return n+1 breakpoints, i.e. n intervals, but note that this is not guaranteed. There are methods for Date and POSIXct objects.

For fine-grained control over base::pretty() parameters, use chop(x, brk_pretty(...)).

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

Examples

chop_pretty(1:10)

chop(1:10, brk_pretty(n = 5, high.u.bias = 0))

tab_pretty(1:10)

Chop into proportions of the range of x

Description

chop_proportions() chops x into proportions of its range, excluding infinite values.

Usage

chop_proportions(x, proportions, ..., raw = TRUE)

brk_proportions(proportions)

tab_proportions(x, proportions, ..., raw = TRUE)

Arguments

x

A vector.

proportions

Numeric vector between 0 and 1: proportions of x's range. If proportions has names, these will be used for labels.

...

Passed to chop().

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

Details

By default, labels show the raw numeric endpoints. To label intervals by the proportions, use raw = FALSE.

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop_proportions(0:10, c(0.2, 0.8))
chop_proportions(0:10, c(Low = 0, Mid = 0.2, High = 0.8))

Chop by quantiles

Description

chop_quantiles() chops data by quantiles. chop_deciles() is a convenience function which chops into deciles.

Usage

chop_quantiles(
  x,
  probs,
  ...,
  left = is.numeric(x),
  raw = FALSE,
  weights = NULL
)

chop_deciles(x, ...)

brk_quantiles(probs, ..., weights = NULL)

tab_quantiles(x, probs, ..., left = is.numeric(x), raw = FALSE)

tab_deciles(x, ...)

Arguments

x

A vector.

probs

A vector of probabilities for the quantiles. If probs has names, these will be used for labels.

...

For chop_quantiles, passed to chop(). For brk_quantiles(), passed to stats::quantile() or Hmisc::wtd.quantile().

left

Logical. Left-closed or right-closed breaks?

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

weights

NULL or numeric vector of same length as x. If not NULL, Hmisc::wtd.quantile() is used to calculate weighted quantiles.

Details

For non-numeric x, left is set to FALSE by default. This works better for calculating "type 1" quantiles, since they round down. See stats::quantile().

If x contains duplicates, consecutive quantiles may be the same number so that some intervals get merged.

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_width(), fillet()

Examples

chop_quantiles(1:10, 1:3/4)

chop_quantiles(1:10, c(Q1 = 0, Q2 = 0.25, Q3 = 0.5, Q4 = 0.75))

chop(1:10, brk_quantiles(1:3/4))

chop_deciles(1:10)

# to label by the quantiles themselves:
chop_quantiles(1:10, 1:3/4, raw = TRUE)

# duplicates:
tab_quantiles(c(1, 1, 1, 2, 3), 1:5/5)

set.seed(42)
tab_quantiles(rnorm(100), probs = 1:3/4, raw = TRUE)

Chop into fixed-width intervals

Description

chop_width() chops x into intervals of fixed width.

Usage

chop_width(x, width, start, ..., left = sign(width) > 0)

brk_width(width, start)

## Default S3 method:
brk_width(width, start)

tab_width(x, width, start, ..., left = sign(width) > 0)

Arguments

x

A vector.

width

Width of intervals.

start

Starting point for intervals. By default the smallest finite x (largest if width is negative).

...

Passed to chop().

left

Logical. Left-closed or right-closed breaks?

Details

If width is negative, chop_width() sets left = FALSE and intervals will go downwards from start.

Value

⁠chop_*⁠ functions return a factor of the same length as x.

⁠brk_*⁠ functions return a function to create breaks.

⁠tab_*⁠ functions return a contingency table().

See Also

brk_width-for-datetime

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), fillet()

Examples

chop_width(1:10, 2)

chop_width(1:10, 2, start = 0)

chop_width(1:9, -2)

chop(1:10, brk_width(2, 0))

tab_width(1:10, 2, start = 0)

Define singleton intervals explicitly

Description

exactly() duplicates its input. It lets you define singleton intervals like this: chop(x, c(1, exactly(2), 3)). This is the same as chop(x, c(1, 2, 2, 3)) but conveys your intent more clearly.

Usage

exactly(x)

Arguments

x

A numeric vector.

Value

The same as rep(x, each = 2).

Examples

chop(1:10, c(2, exactly(5), 8))

# same:
chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 5, 8))

Chop data precisely (for programmers)

Description

fillet() calls chop() with extend = FALSE and drop = FALSE. This ensures that you get only the breaks and labels you ask for. When programming, consider using fillet() instead of chop().

Usage

fillet(
  x,
  breaks,
  labels = lbl_intervals(),
  left = TRUE,
  close_end = TRUE,
  raw = NULL
)

Arguments

x

A vector.

breaks

A numeric vector of cut-points or a function to create cut-points from x.

labels

A character vector of labels or a function to create labels.

left

Logical. Left-closed or right-closed breaks?

close_end

Logical. Close last break at right? (If left is FALSE, close first break at left?)

raw

Logical. Use raw values in labels?

Value

fillet() returns a factor of the same length as x, representing the intervals containing the value of x.

See Also

Other chopping functions: chop(), chop_equally(), chop_evenly(), chop_fn(), chop_mean_sd(), chop_n(), chop_proportions(), chop_quantiles(), chop_width()

Examples

fillet(1:10, c(2, 5, 8))

Label chopped intervals like 1-4, 4-5, ...

Description

This label style is user-friendly, but doesn't distinguish between left- and right-closed intervals. It's good for continuous data where you don't expect points to be exactly on the breaks.

Usage

lbl_dash(
  symbol = em_dash(),
  fmt = NULL,
  single = "{l}",
  first = NULL,
  last = NULL,
  raw = FALSE
)

Arguments

symbol

String: symbol to use for the dash.

fmt

String, list or function. A format for break endpoints.

single

Glue string: label for singleton intervals. See lbl_glue() for details.

first

Glue string: override label for the first category. Write e.g. first = "<{r}" to create a label like "<18". See lbl_glue() for details.

last

String: override label for the last category. Write e.g. last = ">{l}" to create a label like ">65". See lbl_glue() for details.

raw

[Deprecated]. Use the raw argument to chop() instead.

Details

If you don't want unicode output, use lbl_dash("-").

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

Formatting endpoints

If fmt is not NULL then it is used to format the endpoints.

  • If fmt is a string, then numeric endpoints will be formatted by sprintf(fmt, breaks); other endpoints, e.g. Date objects, will be formatted by format(breaks, fmt).

  • If fmt is a list, then it will be used as arguments to format.

  • If fmt is a function, it should take a vector of numbers (or other objects that can be used as breaks) and return a character vector. It may be helpful to use functions from the {scales} package, e.g. scales::label_comma().

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_discrete(), lbl_endpoints(), lbl_glue(), lbl_intervals(), lbl_manual(), lbl_midpoints(), lbl_seq()

Examples

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_dash())

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_dash(" to ", fmt = "%.1f"))

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_dash(first = "<{r}"))

pretty <- function (x) prettyNum(x, big.mark = ",", digits = 1)
chop(runif(10) * 10000, c(3000, 7000), lbl_dash(" to ", fmt = pretty))

Label discrete data

Description

lbl_discrete() creates labels for discrete data, such as integers. For example, breaks c(1, 3, 4, 6, 7) are labelled: ⁠"1-2", "3", "4-5", "6-7"⁠.

Usage

lbl_discrete(
  symbol = em_dash(),
  unit = 1,
  fmt = NULL,
  single = NULL,
  first = NULL,
  last = NULL
)

Arguments

symbol

String: symbol to use for the dash.

unit

Minimum difference between distinct values of data. For integers, 1.

fmt

String, list or function. A format for break endpoints.

single

Glue string: label for singleton intervals. See lbl_glue() for details.

first

Glue string: override label for the first category. Write e.g. first = "<{r}" to create a label like "<18". See lbl_glue() for details.

last

String: override label for the last category. Write e.g. last = ">{l}" to create a label like ">65". See lbl_glue() for details.

Details

No check is done that the data are discrete-valued. If they are not, then these labels may be misleading. Here, discrete-valued means that if x < y, then x <= y - unit.

Be aware that Date objects may have non-integer values. See Date.

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

Formatting endpoints

If fmt is not NULL then it is used to format the endpoints.

  • If fmt is a string, then numeric endpoints will be formatted by sprintf(fmt, breaks); other endpoints, e.g. Date objects, will be formatted by format(breaks, fmt).

  • If fmt is a list, then it will be used as arguments to format.

  • If fmt is a function, it should take a vector of numbers (or other objects that can be used as breaks) and return a character vector. It may be helpful to use functions from the {scales} package, e.g. scales::label_comma().

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_dash(), lbl_endpoints(), lbl_glue(), lbl_intervals(), lbl_manual(), lbl_midpoints(), lbl_seq()

Examples

tab(1:7, c(1, 3, 5), lbl_discrete())

tab(1:7, c(3, 5), lbl_discrete(first = "<= {r}"))

tab(1:7 * 1000, c(1, 3, 5) * 1000, lbl_discrete(unit = 1000))

# Misleading labels for non-integer data
chop(2.5, c(1, 3, 5), lbl_discrete())

Label chopped intervals by their left or right endpoints

Description

This is useful when the left endpoint unambiguously indicates the interval. In other cases it may give errors due to duplicate labels.

Usage

lbl_endpoints(
  left = TRUE,
  fmt = NULL,
  single = NULL,
  first = NULL,
  last = NULL,
  raw = FALSE
)

lbl_endpoint(fmt = NULL, raw = FALSE, left = TRUE)

Arguments

left

Flag. Use left endpoint or right endpoint?

fmt

String, list or function. A format for break endpoints.

single

Glue string: label for singleton intervals. See lbl_glue() for details.

first

Glue string: override label for the first category. Write e.g. first = "<{r}" to create a label like "<18". See lbl_glue() for details.

last

String: override label for the last category. Write e.g. last = ">{l}" to create a label like ">65". See lbl_glue() for details.

raw

[Deprecated]. Use the raw argument to chop() instead.

Details

lbl_endpoint() is [Defunct] and gives an error since santoku 1.0.0.

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

Formatting endpoints

If fmt is not NULL then it is used to format the endpoints.

  • If fmt is a string, then numeric endpoints will be formatted by sprintf(fmt, breaks); other endpoints, e.g. Date objects, will be formatted by format(breaks, fmt).

  • If fmt is a list, then it will be used as arguments to format.

  • If fmt is a function, it should take a vector of numbers (or other objects that can be used as breaks) and return a character vector. It may be helpful to use functions from the {scales} package, e.g. scales::label_comma().

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_dash(), lbl_discrete(), lbl_glue(), lbl_intervals(), lbl_manual(), lbl_midpoints(), lbl_seq()

Examples

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_endpoints(left = TRUE))
chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_endpoints(left = FALSE))
if (requireNamespace("lubridate")) {
  tab_width(
          as.Date("2000-01-01") + 0:365,
         months(1),
         labels = lbl_endpoints(fmt = "%b")
       )
}

## Not run: 
  # This gives breaks `[1, 2) [2, 3) {3}` which lead to
  # duplicate labels `"2", "3", "3"`:
  chop(1:3, 1:3, lbl_endpoints(left = FALSE))

## End(Not run)

Label chopped intervals using the glue package

Description

Use "{l}" and "{r}" to show the left and right endpoints of the intervals.

Usage

lbl_glue(
  label,
  fmt = NULL,
  single = NULL,
  first = NULL,
  last = NULL,
  raw = FALSE,
  ...
)

Arguments

label

A glue string passed to glue::glue().

fmt

String, list or function. A format for break endpoints.

single

Glue string: label for singleton intervals. See lbl_glue() for details.

first

Glue string: override label for the first category. Write e.g. first = "<{r}" to create a label like "<18". See lbl_glue() for details.

last

String: override label for the last category. Write e.g. last = ">{l}" to create a label like ">65". See lbl_glue() for details.

raw

[Deprecated]. Use the raw argument to chop() instead.

...

Further arguments passed to glue::glue().

Details

The following variables are available in the glue string:

  • l is a character vector of left endpoints of intervals.

  • r is a character vector of right endpoints of intervals.

  • l_closed is a logical vector. Elements are TRUE when the left endpoint is closed.

  • r_closed is a logical vector, TRUE when the right endpoint is closed.

Endpoints will be formatted by fmt before being passed to glue().

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

Formatting endpoints

If fmt is not NULL then it is used to format the endpoints.

  • If fmt is a string, then numeric endpoints will be formatted by sprintf(fmt, breaks); other endpoints, e.g. Date objects, will be formatted by format(breaks, fmt).

  • If fmt is a list, then it will be used as arguments to format.

  • If fmt is a function, it should take a vector of numbers (or other objects that can be used as breaks) and return a character vector. It may be helpful to use functions from the {scales} package, e.g. scales::label_comma().

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_dash(), lbl_discrete(), lbl_endpoints(), lbl_intervals(), lbl_manual(), lbl_midpoints(), lbl_seq()

Examples

tab(1:10, c(1, 3, 3, 7),
    labels = lbl_glue("{l} to {r}", single = "Exactly {l}"))

tab(1:10 * 1000, c(1, 3, 5, 7) * 1000,
    labels = lbl_glue("{l}-{r}",
                      fmt = function(x) prettyNum(x, big.mark=',')))

# reproducing lbl_intervals():
interval_left <- "{ifelse(l_closed, '[', '(')}"
interval_right <- "{ifelse(r_closed, ']', ')')}"
glue_string <- paste0(interval_left, "{l}", ", ", "{r}", interval_right)
tab(1:10, c(1, 3, 3, 7), labels = lbl_glue(glue_string, single = "{{{l}}}"))

Label chopped intervals using set notation

Description

These labels are the most exact, since they show you whether intervals are "closed" or "open", i.e. whether they include their endpoints.

Usage

lbl_intervals(
  fmt = NULL,
  single = "{{{l}}}",
  first = NULL,
  last = NULL,
  raw = FALSE
)

Arguments

fmt

String, list or function. A format for break endpoints.

single

Glue string: label for singleton intervals. See lbl_glue() for details.

first

Glue string: override label for the first category. Write e.g. first = "<{r}" to create a label like "<18". See lbl_glue() for details.

last

String: override label for the last category. Write e.g. last = ">{l}" to create a label like ">65". See lbl_glue() for details.

raw

[Deprecated]. Use the raw argument to chop() instead.

Details

Mathematical set notation looks like this:

  • [a, b]: all numbers x where ⁠a <= x <= b⁠;

  • (a, b): all numbers where ⁠a < x < b⁠;

  • [a, b): all numbers where ⁠a <= x < b⁠;

  • (a, b]: all numbers where ⁠a < x <= b⁠;

  • {a}: just the number a exactly.

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

Formatting endpoints

If fmt is not NULL then it is used to format the endpoints.

  • If fmt is a string, then numeric endpoints will be formatted by sprintf(fmt, breaks); other endpoints, e.g. Date objects, will be formatted by format(breaks, fmt).

  • If fmt is a list, then it will be used as arguments to format.

  • If fmt is a function, it should take a vector of numbers (or other objects that can be used as breaks) and return a character vector. It may be helpful to use functions from the {scales} package, e.g. scales::label_comma().

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_dash(), lbl_discrete(), lbl_endpoints(), lbl_glue(), lbl_manual(), lbl_midpoints(), lbl_seq()

Examples

tab(-10:10, c(-3, 0, 0, 3),
      labels = lbl_intervals())

tab(-10:10, c(-3, 0, 0, 3),
      labels = lbl_intervals(fmt = list(nsmall = 1)))

tab_evenly(runif(20), 10,
      labels = lbl_intervals(fmt = percent))

Label chopped intervals by their midpoints

Description

This uses the midpoint of each interval for its label.

Usage

lbl_midpoints(
  fmt = NULL,
  single = NULL,
  first = NULL,
  last = NULL,
  raw = FALSE
)

Arguments

fmt

String, list or function. A format for break endpoints.

single

Glue string: label for singleton intervals. See lbl_glue() for details.

first

Glue string: override label for the first category. Write e.g. first = "<{r}" to create a label like "<18". See lbl_glue() for details.

last

String: override label for the last category. Write e.g. last = ">{l}" to create a label like ">65". See lbl_glue() for details.

raw

[Deprecated]. Use the raw argument to chop() instead.

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

Formatting endpoints

If fmt is not NULL then it is used to format the endpoints.

  • If fmt is a string, then numeric endpoints will be formatted by sprintf(fmt, breaks); other endpoints, e.g. Date objects, will be formatted by format(breaks, fmt).

  • If fmt is a list, then it will be used as arguments to format.

  • If fmt is a function, it should take a vector of numbers (or other objects that can be used as breaks) and return a character vector. It may be helpful to use functions from the {scales} package, e.g. scales::label_comma().

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_dash(), lbl_discrete(), lbl_endpoints(), lbl_glue(), lbl_intervals(), lbl_manual(), lbl_seq()

Examples

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_midpoints())

Label chopped intervals in sequence

Description

lbl_seq() labels intervals sequentially, using numbers or letters.

Usage

lbl_seq(start = "a")

Arguments

start

String. A template for the sequence. See below.

Details

start shows the first element of the sequence. It must contain exactly one character out of the set "a", "A", "i", "I" or "1". For later elements:

  • "a" will be replaced by "a", "b", "c", ...

  • "A" will be replaced by "A", "B", "C", ...

  • "i" will be replaced by lower-case Roman numerals "i", "ii", "iii", ...

  • "I" will be replaced by upper-case Roman numerals "I", "II", "III", ...

  • "1" will be replaced by numbers "1", "2", "3", ...

Other characters will be retained as-is.

Value

A function that creates a vector of labels.

See Also

Other labelling functions: lbl_dash(), lbl_discrete(), lbl_endpoints(), lbl_glue(), lbl_intervals(), lbl_manual(), lbl_midpoints()

Examples

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_seq())

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_seq("i."))

chop(1:10, c(2, 5, 8), lbl_seq("(A)"))

Tips for chopping non-standard types

Description

Santoku can handle many non-standard types.

Details

  • If objects can be compared using <, == etc. then they should be choppable.

  • Objects which can't be converted to numeric are handled within R code, which may be slower.

  • Character x and breaks are chopped with a warning.

  • If x and breaks are not the same type, they should be able to be cast to the same type, usually using vctrs::vec_cast_common().

  • Not all chopping operations make sense, for example, chop_mean_sd() on a character vector.

  • For indexed objects such as stats::ts() objects, indices will be dropped from the result.

  • If you get errors, try setting extend = FALSE (but also file a bug report).

  • To request support for a type, open an issue on Github.

See Also

brk-width-for-Datetime


Simple percentage formatter

Description

percent() formats x as a percentage. For a wider range of formatters, consider the scales package.

Usage

percent(x)

Arguments

x

Numeric values.

Value

x formatted as a percent.

Examples

percent(0.5)